Friday, November 1, 2013

Salzburg Cathedral

Since 774 on the location there has always been a christian church, but there has been phases or remodeling done to the building. In 1181, the original began to be replace with a Romanesque structure which concluded in 1200. Later in 1598, the cathedral burnt down and and the Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich decided to demolish the rest of the cathedral to then be able to make a bigger cathedral which could reaffirm the commitment Salzburg had to the Catholic faith during the Reformation. The cathedral contains 7 chapels along the sides of the aisles.

The interior has a sepia tone, with the white and bronze tones through out. The cathedral is grand beginning with the impressive entrance where the three bronze doors are located. and had many Baroque decor along the roof and walls. The coffer ceiling is ornamented with the Austrian baroque style. It is decorated with elaborate Baroque murals, some of which were designed (along with the altarpieces) by Mascagni of Florence.

Additional information:

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Kremsmünster Abbey

Kremsmünster Abbey (1709-1713) Austria

Located in Austria, the architects  Jakob Prandtauer and Anselm Desings designed in the mid 13th century church built in a style between the Romanesque and Gothic. It was remodeled in Baroque style the 17th century by the architect Antonio Carlone.

In the interior there is a total of twelve alters which are decorated with stucco. There are many sculptures, including the angels by Michael Zürn the Younger from the 17th century.

The main church is dedicated to "Christ the Saviour and St. Agapitus." In 1613 the church was remodelled in the Baroque style. Between 1680 and 1720, the interior of the church was redecorated with Baroque ornamentation by the designs of Carlo Antonio Carlone, Giovanni Battista Colomba and Giovanni Battista Barberini.

The high alter by Johann Andreas Wolf in 1712 is designed with the Baroque characteristics. More example of the Austrian Baroque are the angels by Johann Michael Zürn the younger.


Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Types of Buildings in the French Baroque

In Baroque architecture in France, there were specific types of buildings which make up the architecture. Following the ancient decorum, the building types are:

Place royale
The hotel
The palace
The church

Each have a specific role in the the French urbanization community. The Place Royale is what we know today as a square but Henry IV had the intentions of encouraging commerce and also confirm the royal presence. The people of France used these locations for leisure and public events.

The Hotel was new residential housing in Pairs during the 17th century.
Hotel de la Vrillière, 1635, Pairs

The Chateau is the country house in France, located a distance from the urban city.
Chateau de Maisons, 1650, west of Pairs

The Palace was a symbol which confirmed the presence of the monarch.
Palace of Versailles, 1689, Versailles

The church was one the principle building types in France. 
Dome des Invalides, 1706, Pairs

These building types affected the communities in France, allowing more structured urbanization lead by the monarchs of the Baroque era in France. 

Additional Information:

Guarino Guarini

Guarino Guarini, born in 1624, was an Italian architect, as well as a mathematician, and theologian. He received most of his teachings in Modena, Italy where he was born. He taught in various locations, going from Modena, to Messina, to Paris, and to Turin. In Turin was where he stayed for the most amount of time. Here, he designed many public and private building including the Royal Church of San Lorenzo (1666-1680), most of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, which houses the Shroud of Turin, and Palazzo Carignano (1679-1685).

Dome at the Royal Church of San Lorenzo

Shroud of Turn (negative included)

Palazzo Carignano is sometimes considered Guarini's masterpiece design. It used to serve as a private residence of the Princes of Carignano. It is most famous for its rounded facade creating the concave-convex rhythm that had previously been seen in the church of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.

Facade of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1646)

Facade of Palazzo Carignano (1679)


French Baroque Music

In the Baroque era, there was one composer who created and lead the genera in France. His name was Jean-Baptiste Lully who was born in the year 1632 in Florence, Italy.

Lully composed under the reign of Louis XIV of France. Even though he was born in Italy, he had no influence of the Italian Baroque in his pieces. He also is know as the inventor of the French opera. His operas are described as "tragedies in music." Well known for the contribution of prologue and the five acts. Since the operas were preformed for the king, Lully worked in a team with Quinault, who put the words and Lully the music.

His operas began being preformed in a tennis court in Bel-Air which Lully later turned into a theater. Later on the operas began to be preformed at the well known theater of the Palais-Royal. Below are some of his operas:

Cadmus et Hermione, tragedy, at tennis court (jeu de paume) of Bel-Air
Thésée, tragedy , at St-Germain-en-Laye
Roland, tragedy, at Versailles (Grande Écurei) 
Achille et Polyxène, tragedy,  at Palais-Royal

Lully passed away in Pairs due to gangrene in 1687, but his legacy in the music history in France will never be forgotten. 

Additional Information:


Talk about a mouthful. It's pronounced "fear-sain-hye-luh-gehn". And if you can't get past that, then the translation from German is the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (or Saints). 

General Information:
Project: Basilika Vierzehnheiligen ("Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers")
Architect: Balthasar Neumann
Location: Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria, Germany
Time: 1743-1772

The Miracle:
Basilika Vierzehnheiligen is one of Germany's most famous pilgrimage churches designed by Balthasar Neumann. The entire structure overlooks the valley of the Main River near Banz in Francoinia. Like many other pilgrimage sites, the basilica was erected after a shepherd, Hermann Leicht, from a nearby Franciscan monastery had three visions of Jesus as an infant. The first time he had the vision, he was unaware of the child being a holy figure until he tried to pick it up and the figure disappeared. Leicht had the same vision in the same spot again except this time the infant Christ was flanked by two candles. The third occurrence also included Jesus as a child, but he was surrounded by thirteen other infant figures to which Jesus told him to build a chapel in the area. 

The facade of Vierzehnheiligen is characterized by tall bell towers capped by onion domes that flank both sides of the main entrance. 

Elements from Vierzehnheiligen's facade that are also found in Il Gesu:
- Broken triangular and curved pediments
- Deep cornice
- Pilasters, columns, and engaged columns with a Corinthian capital
- Cartouche
- Niches with figures of saints
- Balustrade
- Undulating facade (found more in Borromini's S. Carlo)

Baroque Plan:
Similar to many other German Baroque structures at the time, the Vierzehnheiligen employs a Baroque plan with a interior geared more towards a Rococo design. Reiterating what was said in class, this was because of the 30-Years War that raged throughout Germany while the rest of Europe was implementing various elements of Baroque design into their structures. After the war came to an end, Germany had to play catch-up with a fading Baroque period; consequently, their structures apply a Baroque facade and plan, but the interior remains distinctly Rococo. Vierzehnheiligen employs a series of oval, ellipses, and circles that are typically found in a Baroque plan. Its organization alludes to a Latin-cross basilica and encourages movement throughout the basilica.

Rococo Interior:
Generally, the Rococo style employs the use of light colored material and gold leafy filigree in order to express the feelings toward religion at the time. It was a movement dedicated to showing the joy of being in the presence of God in a religious space. Vierzehnheiligen's interior uses large fresco pieces to accentuate the barrel vaulted ceilings while the gold ribbon fresco demarcates the edges of the curved vaults. Pastel shades of pink, yellow, and grey are seen not only in the frescos, but also found in the columns that line the nave. Large clerestory flood the basilica with light and make the space feel as if it is floating. In the center is the altar of the fourteen saints which is the centerpiece for the basilica.

Class notes
Baroque and Rococo Art and Architecture by Robert Neuman (maybe he's related!)

Monday, October 28, 2013

Il Gesù

Il Gesù is the mother church in Rome of the Jesuit order. The Jesuit order, founded by Ignatius of Loyola on August 15, 1534, is involved in educational, missionary, and charitable works. They were considered one of the most important factors for the Counter Reformation.

The church of Il Gesù is officially named Chiesa del Santissimo Nome di Gesù all'Argentina which translated into English means Church of the Most Holy Name of Jesus at the "Argentina". The plan designed by Giacomo da Vignola in 1568, is a Latin-cross-plan church with a single aisle with side chapels and a dome over the crossing of the nave and trancepts. 

The facade, designed by Giacomo della Porta, was added in 1575. It is divided into two sections. The lower section is divided by six pairs of pilasters with Corinthian capitals and the upper is divided with four pairs of pilasters. It also consists of a volute on each side. The facade is the "first true baroque facade" which served as a model for many of the Jesuit churches all of the world.

Cy Twombly Drawings

Sotheby's Video

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Guggenheim Catalogues Free Online Viewing

From the Guggenheim Archives

Jan Blažej Santini Aichel

Church of St. John of Nepomuk at Zelená hora

Jan Blažej Santini Aichel was born on February 3, 1677 from Italian descent. He was the eldest son of a family of stonemasons in Prague. He was born with a paralysis of half of his body, this made following the families occupation impossible. In his youth Aichel was intrigued by painting. So much so that his father decided to have him properly educated in painting and architecture. Is it speculated that Jean Baptista Mathey was the boy’s instructor.
Zvole - Church of St. Wenceslas

Around the age of 19, after his graduation, is was accustom to travel in order to gain experience. His travel lasted over three years. His journey took him through Austria and Rome. In Rome he experienced the work of Francesco Borromini, influencing him greatly.

Kladruby Monastery - Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary

After his journey was complete Aichel began to design and build independently. He met Wolfgang Lochner, an abbot in Zbraslav, who would become Aichel’s first major customer. Thanks to Lochner, Aichel gained many customers between 1700 and 1710. Including the abbots of Sedlec, Žďár, Plasy and Kladruby.

During his life it is believed that Aichel was responsible for building over 60 buildings. Ten of which are considered “an absolute peak of European architecture in that time.” A few examples of his work include: Mariánská Týnice, Church of St. John of Nepomuk at Zelená hora, Zvole - Church of St. Wenceslas, and Kladruby Monastery - Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.

Mariánská Týnice

On December 7, 1723 Aichel died at the age of 46. He chose the church of St. John in Obora, Prague to be his final resting place. Unfortunately that church was discontinued in 1784, the church became private property. The church was reconstructed into a house, the cemetery was transformed into a garden. Today there is no way in knowing what happened to Aichel’s remains.